This is part 3 of a series of blog posts about modelling stems and principal part lists and covers the Morwood lemmas and issues in merging them with Pratt’s.

Like Pratt, Morwood conflates the lemma with the first principal part and similarly calls the relevant column “present”.

One of the first differences one notices is that Morwood’s principal parts list indicates vowel length. This is useful in many cases for the accentuation stage of my form generating code. That Morwood indicates length and Pratt doesn’t has at least two implications: (1) it means that any matching between the lists will have to strip length (not a big deal); (2) it raises the question of whether forms in Pratt but not Morwood should somehow be tagged as underspecified for length (perhaps to be later inferred from accentuation or looked up manually in other sources).

Like Pratt, Morwood indicates where a base form is used but a particular compound is more common. As we saw previously, Pratt does this by saying αἰνέω {ἐπαινέω}. Morwood, in turn, says αἰνέω (ἐπ-). Each is fairly easily derivable from the other and whatever our own internal format will be, we should be able to reconstruct both the Pratt and Morwood display. However Morwood will sometimes include more than one preverb. For example στέλλω (ἀπο-, ἐπι-). In this case Pratt just gives στέλλω.

Sometimes a single preverb will have alternative spellings (depending on assimilation) which Morwood indicates like πίπλημι (ἐμ-/ἐν-).

One somewhat unusual feature of Morwood is it will group synonyms such as βιόω and ζάω, or πωλέω and ἀποδίδομαι. It still puts them on separate lines, though, which enables other parts to be correlated.

A similar approach is taken to spelling variations. In Morwood, these are:

  • ἀλλάσσω and ἀλλάττω
  • ἁρμόττω and ἁρμόζω
  • κλαίω and κλᾱ́ω (the latter of which Morwood annotates with (in prose))
  • αὐξάνω and αὔξω
  • μείγνῡμι and μῑ́γνῡμι
  • οἶμαι and οἴομαι

each expressed as a pair of lines.

There are only two other things to note about Morwood’s first column: (1) where he groups βιόω and ζάω, the latter is inexplicably put in square brackets; (2) italics is occasionally used to indicate a form that is rare or non-attested. This is more often seen in parts other than the first but it does occurs in the first part in Morwood’s second list in two cases: βλώσκω and δαρθάνω (κατα).

Matching up Pratt and Morwood

There are 73 entries identical in lemma between Pratt and Morwood’s first list. There are 27 entries identical in lemma between Pratt and Morwood’s second list.

There are 14 entries where Morwood simply adds vowel length but otherwise the lemmas are the same (10 in first list, 4 in second).

In three cases the lemmas are in fact the same but the common compound is just formatted differently:

  • αἰνέω {ἐπαινέω} vs αἰνέω (ἐπ-)
  • θνῄσκω {ἀποθνῄσκω} vs θνῄσκω (ἀπο-)
  • κτείνω {ἀποκτείνω} vs κτείνω (ἀπο-)

Similarly in two cases, Pratt just adds the preverb analysis:

  • [ἀνα]λίσκω vs ἀνᾱλίσκω
  • [ἀφ]ικνέομαι vs ἀφικνέομαι

(although note ἀνᾱλίσκω also adds vowel length)

In one case, Pratt gives common compound on base entry but Morwood doesn’t

  • ἵημι {ἀφιημι} vs ῑ̔́ημι

(and Morwood adds vowel length)

In five cases, Pratt gives a compound with preverb analysis but Morwood has base (showing common preverb):

  • [ἀν]οίγνυμι/[ἀν]οίγω vs οἴγνῡμι (ἀν-)
  • [ἀπ]όλλυμι vs ὄλλῡμι (ἀπ-)
  • [καθ]εύδω vs εὕδω (καθ-)
  • [κατα]δαρθάνω vs δαρθάνω (κατα)
  • [δια]φθείρω vs φθείρω (δια-)

(although note Pratt also has φθείρω as separate entry; Morwood adds vowel length for οἴγνῡμι (ἀν-) and ὄλλῡμι (ἀπ-); Morwood doesn’t have the alternative ἀνοίγω for ἀνοίγνῡμι)

In three cases, Pratt gives the base (as does Morwood) but Morwood adds a common preverb:

  • μιμνῄσκω vs μιμνῄσκω (ἀνα-)
  • πίμπλημι vs πίμπλημι (ἐμ-/ἐν-)
  • στέλλω vs στέλλω (ἀπο-/ἐπι-)

φθείρω vs φθείρω (δια-) would be included here but Pratt separately has [δια]φθείρω.

Also, Pratt has an unmatched [ἀπο]κρίνομαι but Pratt and Morwood have a separate κρίνω and κρῑ́νω respectively.

In two cases, Pratt gives middle form but Morwood gives active form:

  • μαίνομαι vs μαίνω
  • ψεύδομαι vs ψεύδω

And in two cases, Morwood gives an indefinite form where Pratt gives 1st singular:

  • δέω (2) vs δεῖ
  • μέλω vs μέλει

There are 105 entries lemmas unique to Pratt (although this includes [δια]λέγομαι and [συλ]λέγω which could be mapped to λέγω). Most of these entries appear to be regular and so, given Morwood’s focus on irregular verbs, it is not surprising there are omissions.

Morwood’s first list adds three new lemmas: ἀποδίδομαι (grouped under πωλέω with which it’s suppletive in 3rd part), βιόω and χρή.

Morwood’s second list adds 42 new lemmas: ἄγνῡμι, αἰδέομαι, ἀλείφω, ἅλλομαι, ἁρμόττω / ἁρμόζω, βλώσκω, ἐξετάζω, ζεύγνῡμι, ζέω, καθαίρω, καλύπτω, κείρω, κεράννῡμι, κερδαίνω, κηρῡ́ττω, κρεμάννῡμι, νέω, ὄζω, ὀνινημι, ὀρύττω, ὀσφραίνομαι, ὀφλισκάνω, παίω, περαίνω, πέρδομαι, πετάννῡμι (ἀνα-), πέτομαι, πήγνῡμι, πίμπρημι (ἐμ-/ἐν-), πνέω, σβέννῡμι, σκάπτω, σπάω, σπείρω, σπένδω, σφάλλω, τελέω, τήκω, ὑφαίνω, φείδομαι, χρῑ́ω, ὠθέω.

Concluding Thoughts

Inclusion of vowel length and differences in how common compounds are shown are easy to handle in any model merging these two lists. If bases and compounds get individual entries containing their parts but are otherwise linked via additional properties, we get around those issues too.

However there remain four open issues to deal with:

  • whether spelling differences that don’t span all parts should get separate entries.
  • how to handle one list giving form in active but another in middle
  • how to handle one list giving indefinite its own entry, the other putting it under the first person singular
  • situations where one list uses forms from one lexeme for some of the parts of another