Formatting of Principal Parts

This is part 5 of a series of blog posts about modelling stems and principal part lists and covers the format of the principal parts themselves in the Pratt, Morwood and DCC verb lists.

Now that we’ve looked at how the various lemmas interelate, let’s turn our attention to the individual part formatting. Here I just describe the various idiosyncracies. In subsequent posts, I’ll discuss how to bring together (the relevant parts of) this information in single, machine-actionable format.


  • unattested form cells have emdash
  • forms only found with a prefix but listed under the base verb are prefixed - (often still with breathing but sometimes inconsistently not)
  • alternative forms separated by /
    • active vs middle (this will be an important distinction in later posts)
    • different augment handling
    • stem alternatives
    • other spelling differences
  • some single-letter spelling differences are just indicated with parenthetical letter (could be expanded to just use / as above)
  • aorists sometimes indicate the root in parentheses where it might not be predictable from the part (particularly useful later for inferring unaugmented stems, etc)
  • (rarely) section number with paradigm is referenced
  • (rarely) part-specific gloss is included
  • forms taken from another synonymous verb indicated by * (although not all suppletion indicated this way)


  • includes seventh part for future passive
  • vowel lengths indicated
  • pre-contracted forms (especially in future) are shown in parentheses
  • rare forms are in italics
  • forms only found with a prefix but listed under the base verb are prefixed - (not normally with breathing but one or two inconsistencies)
  • alternative forms separated by , (or on new line, see below)
  • imperfect form sometimes listed under aorist column (marked impf.)
  • specifically transitive or intransitive forms sometimes marked (tr.) or (intr.)
  • because alternative lemmas get their own line, corresponding forms can be lined up
  • (rarely) page number references
  • (rarely) part-specific glosses
  • poetic spelling variants sometimes indicated

DCC Greek Core List

  • unlike Pratt and Morwood, the parts are just a comma-separated list
  • missing forms are not indicated as such so sometimes fewer than six forms are listed; if there are gaps, the next form is sometimes annotated with which part it is (and sometimes it’s annotated even when it doesn’t need to be)
  • second aorists are annotated with 2 aor.
  • where there is a first and second aorist, they can both be given as separate, comma-separated parts (with first annotated as 1 aor.)
  • non-standard parts are sometimes given (e.g. impf., infin., ptc.)
  • forms only found with a prefix but listed under the base verb are prefixed - (not normally with breathing)
  • occasionally further annotated in parentheses, e.g.:
    • πειράω (usually mid. πειράομαι)
    • προστέθειμαι (but commonly προσκεῖμαι instead)
    • τέθειμαι (but usu. κεῖμαι instead)
  • in a couple of cases forms are glossed (although inconsistently presented):
    • pf. ἀπολώλεκα (“I have utterly destroyed”) or ἀπόλωλα (“I am undone”)
    • ἵστημι στήσω will set, ἔστησα set, caused to stand, 2 aor. ἔστην stood, ἕστηκα stand, plup. εἱστήκη stood, ἐστάθην stood (note missing comma between first two parts)
  • alternative forms just listed separated by or

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